On May 25, 1861, President Lincoln used the MILITARY to make civilian arrests.
Without the sanction of law the federal government arrested men by the thousands and confined them in military prisons. The number of such executive arrests was certainly over 13,000, and it has been estimated to have been as high as 38,000 (Columbia Law Review, XXI, 527–28, 1921). This policy was bitterly criticized in some quarters, but it is generally assumed that the people as a whole supported the arrest policy.
Click to read about how Lincoln declared a temporary state of Martial Law in select areas and suspended the Writ of Habeas Corpus in order to save the Union.
John Merryman, a state legislator from Maryland, is arrested for attempting to hinder Union troops from moving from Baltimore to Washington during the Civil War and is held at Fort McHenry by Union military officials. His attorney immediately sought a writ of habeas corpus so that a federal court could examine the charges. However, President Abraham Lincoln decided to suspend the right of habeas corpus, and the general in command of Fort McHenry refused to turn Merryman over to the authorities.
Here is Lincoln’s response to the protests that occurred after approx 14,400 arrests but there are estimates upward of 38,000.
In the words of Abraham Lincoln: He did not apologize. In his public letter of June 12, 1863, to Erastus Corning and others, Lincoln said with characteristic toughness: “… the time [is] not unlikely to come when I shall be blamed for having made too few arrests rather than too many.” He argued that the Confederate States, when they seceded, had been counting on being able to keep “on foot amongst us a most efficient corps of spies, informers, supplyers, and aiders and abettors of their cause” under “cover of ‘Liberty of speech’ ‘Liberty of the press’ and ‘Habeas corpus.'” Nicolay and Hay, who were not given to overstatement, noted that “few of the President’s state papers … produced a stronger impression upon the public mind than this.” 
Little wonder. Elsewhere in the letter, the president used even stronger language, saying that he could never appreciate the danger … that the American people will, by means of military arrests during the rebellion, lose the right of public discussion, the liberty of speech and the press, the law of evidence, trail by jury, and Habeas Corpus, throughout the indefinite peaceful future … any more than I am able to believe that a man could contract so strong an appetite for emetics during temporary illness, as to persist in feeding upon them through the remainder of his healthful life. 
After the Merryman incident, Lincoln suspended the writ in other situations, and he received approval from Congress in March 1863 to suspend the writ for the duration of the conflict when “the public safety may require it.”
President Trump, May 14,2020:
“Our military is now being mobilized so at the end of the year, we’re going to be able to give it to a lot of people very, very rapidly.”
-Clean & Swift-
FAST FORWARD TO PRESENT DAY: WHO IS GENERAL MIKE FLYNN?
What Authority does the Constitution grant a sitting President re: matters of NAT SEC? Suspend Habeas Corpus (Article 1, Section 9): The Privilege of the Write of Habeas Corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in Cases of Rebellion or Invasion the public Safety may require it
The Posse Comitatus Act and Related Matters:
The Use of the Military to Execute
Civilian Law. Why Did Lincoln Issue a Proclamation Suspending Habeas Corpus?
First, a little history lesson; click for answer –> lesson
No careful work on the numbers of civilians arrested by military authorities or for reasons of state has ever been done by a historian, and those historians who have attempted an estimate previously have been writing with the goal of defending Lincoln in mind. Even so, the lowest estimate is 13,535 arrests from February 15, 1862, to the end of the war.  At least 866 others occurred from the beginning of the war until February 15, 1862. Therefore, at least 14,401 civilians were arrested by the Lincoln administration. If one takes the population of the North during the Civil War as 22.5 million (using the 1860 census and counting West Virginia but not Nevada), then one person out of every 1,563 in the North was arrested during the Civil War.
18 U.S. Code Chapter 115 – TREASON, SEDITION AND SUBVERSIVE ACTIVITIES.
Now read the following posts and think logically:
But did Comey flip? I think he did, but time will tell.
There was a purge of corrupt people in SA on 11/4/17, do your own research. THINK MIRROR. What happened there is going to happen here in the US. SA —> US
TRANSPARENCY AND PROSECUTION
When does MIL INTEL have jurisdiction?
What vested powers does POTUS have re: MIL INTEL vs. ABC agencies re: matters of NAT SEC (HOMELAND)?
Think ‘umbrella surv’.
The act of subverting : the state of being subverted; especially : a systematic attempt to overthrow or undermine a government or political system by persons working secretly from within?
“The United States seeks to impose tangible and significant consequences on those who commit serious human rights abuse or engage in corruption, as well as to protect the financial system of the United States from abuse by these same persons.”
“I therefore determine that serious human rights abuse and corruption around the world constitute an unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security, foreign policy, and economy of the United States, and I hereby declare a national emergency to deal with that threat.”
THEY KNOW THIS IS REAL
January 1, 2019
“Sec. 12. In accordance with Article 33 of the UCMJ, as amended by section 5204 of the MJA, the Secretary of Defense, in consultation with the Secretary of Homeland Security, will issue nonbinding guidance regarding factors that commanders, convening authorities, staff judge advocates, and judge advocates should take into account when exercising their duties with respect to the disposition of charges and specifications in the interest of justice and discipline under Articles 30 and 34 of the UCMJ. That guidance will take into account, with appropriate consideration of military requirements, the principles contained in official guidance of the Attorney General to attorneys for the Federal Government with respect to the disposition of Federal criminal cases in accordance with the principle of fair and evenhanded administration of Federal criminal law.”
+ FBI personnel removal
+ DOJ personnel removal
+ C_A personnel removal
+ State personnel removal
+ WH personnel removal
+ House personnel removal
+ Senate personnel removal
+ Chair/CEO/VP removal
+ MIL budget (largest in our history).
+ MIL presence around POTUS
+ 134,570 sealed indictments
Nothing to See Here.
FISA will be the start and prepare public for ]HUBER[. “The treachery revealed by Comey, Clapper, and Brennan requires accountability. That can only happen through a federal grand jury investigation headed by John W. Huber, the U.S. Attorney in Utah who has been appointed to investigate the FISA criminality by the Obama FBI and DOJ.” HUBER will bring SEVERE PAIN TO DC.
NOBODY IS ABOVE THE LAW.
THE WORLD IS WATCHING.
“Calm Before the Storm.” – POTUS
WHEN DO WE ENTER THE JUSTICE PHASE?
NEW CAMP “8” IS BEING BUILT IN GITMO
THEY KNOW THIS IS REAL – This is why you are seeing the multiple attempted Coup D’etats play out. Some of the attempts have not been made public and there are deleted texts discussing assassination/harm to POTUS or Family. THIS IS NOT A GAME.
PA Founded around 1736, it was the first township in the area, and it
originally included the entirety of modern York and Adams counties.Prior to October of 1736, all land west of the Susquehanna River was the
territory of the Iroquois. The Iroquois claimed the land by way of their
conquest of the Susquehannocks in 1675. The land between the Susquehanna
River and the Potomac River was shown on old maps to be Conestoga and
Shawnee hunting grounds….about the Iroquois Confederacy The people of the Six Nations, also
known by the French term, Iroquois  Confederacy, call themselves the Hau
de no sau nee (ho dee noe sho nee) meaning People Building a Long House.
Located in the northeastern region of North America, originally the Six
Nations was five and included the Mohawks, Oneidas, Onondagas, Cayugas, and
Senecas. The sixth nation, the Tuscaroras, migrated into Iroquois country in
the early eighteenth century. Together these peoples comprise the oldest
living participatory democracy on earth. Their story, and governance truly
based on the consent of the governed, contains a great deal of
life-promoting intelligence for those of us not familiar with this area of
American history. The original United States representative democracy,
fashioned by such central authors as Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Jefferson,
drew much inspiration from this confederacy of nations. In our present day,
we can benefit immensely, in our quest to establish anew a government truly
dedicated to all life’s liberty and happiness much as has been practiced by
the Six Nations for over 800 hundred years.  }As early as 1719 settlers began to cross the Susquehanna and settle
illegally on land in the area of Kreutz Creek. One man named John Grist
first settled, in defiance of the Board of Property in Pennsylvania, on
un-warranted land at the mouth of Kreutz Creek. At this time the valley and
creek were known as “Grist Creek” and “Grist Valley”.
In April of 1722, Governor William Keith had surveyed a tract called
“Newberry”, also known as the “Mine Land” for the establishment of a copper
mine. This included the area north of Kreutz Creek as far west as an
approximate line drawn from the current Ducktown Road to Wildcat Falls. The
Board of Property gave Keith no authority to issue land warrants here.
In June of 1722, Governor Keith, by way of a treaty with four of the Five
Nations of the Iroquois, authorized the surveying of Springettsbury Manor as
a proprietary manor for Springet Penn, grandson of William. Three men, John
French, Fran. Worley and John Mitchel accomplished the task beginning from a
In 1725, near what later became known as Anderson’s Ferry, Donegal clergy
crossed to the west side of the Susquehanna River to visit settlers along
the Conewago Creek.
In 1728, “Maryland Intruders” were removed from the area by order of the
Deputy Governor and Council at the request of the Indians.
In 1729, John and James Hendricks, with government authorization settled
along Kreutz Creek on 1200 acres of land. John Wright took up several
hundred acres of land between the creek and John Hendricks’ property.
Several families from Chester County settled near Conojohela (Canadochly)
but were removed by the authorities. East of the Susquehanna River,
Lancaster County was formed from the western part of Chester County with its
borders extending to lands west of the river.
In 1730, Thomas Cresap assumed right of land in the area under Maryland
warrant. German families began settling in the region with assurances from
Maryland that they would be issued land grants.
In 1733-34, Samuel Blunston, who was a quaker, a Lancaster County Magistrate
and a surveyor was officially authorized by the Pennsylvania authorities to
issue “licenses to settle”, interim agreements, to those persons already
living on land west of the Susquehanna. Fifty two licenses were for land
within Springettsbury Manor. John Wright was granted a patent to establish a
ferry across the Susquehanna River. John and Christina Shultz built their
house in the area and John’s brother Martin constructed his house on Kreutz
During the summer of 1735, the Reverend John Casper Stoever, a Lutheran
minister baptised the children of Robert Canaan, William Canaan, John Low,
James Moor, Thomas Crysop(Cresap), Jacob Harrington and Edward Evans near
By 1736, German settlers had been abducted and Maryland authorities were
running them off their settlements and attempting to replace them with
Maryland settlers. Thomas Cresap was receiving arms from the Maryland
authorities in Annapolis to carry out these removals. The actions occurring
between pro-Maryland and pro-Pennsylvania settlers became known as “Cresap’s
In October 1736, the Proprietors of Pennsylvania received from the Five
Nations, deeds for the Susquehanna lands south of the Blue Mountains. The
lands that included the area of today’s Hellam Township were now officially
Pennsylvania owned lands.
In December 1736, Cresap was arrested and the problems he caused ceased.
From 1736-39, the area was under the authority of Hempfield Township from
the east side of the river. Charles Jones was the constable of Hempfield and
lived in the area of Hellam. In 1739, the Provincial Assembly passed a
special act to empower Lancaster County to layoff townships west of the
Susquehanna. Hellam Township was created and included most of what is now
York, Adams and Cumberland County. Hellam was named after Hallam, the
township in England where Samuel Blunston, the magistrate of Lancaster
County was born.
In 1739, the first road of Hellam Township, the Monocacy Road was
established. Like many of the roads in Pennsylvania, it followed the path of
an old Indian trail. This one was known as the Monocacy Trail. It began at
Wright’s Ferry, passed through what is now the town of Hallam, and crossed
the Codorus Creek at what would become Yorktown and continued on toward what
would become Hanover and continued beyond the Maryland line.
In 1740 and 1741, the Reverend John Casper Stoever, a Lutheran minister
baptised the children of John Morris, Philipp Bentz, and Ulrich Beutzer near
Kreutz Creek. Witnesses mentioned were Christian Groll, Elizabeth Groll,
Peter Gaertner and John Jost Sultzbach.
In 1741, Yorktown was surveyed by Thomas Cookson at the point where the
Monocacy Road crossed the Codorus Creek.
In 1742, James Anderson petitioned for a ferry near what today is known as
In 1745, the Lutheran and Reformed church was established at Hellam. A log
church was built between 1745 and 1751, on land deeded to Martin Shultz,
Jacob Welshoffer, Henry Smith, and George Amend in trust for the use of the
“Reform and Duch and Lutheran Congregations”. The log church was replaced by
a stone structure in 1777 that was used until 1860 when the present church
was built. Jacob Lischy was the first minister of the Reformed congregation
here. Lischy brought along an assistant and schoolmaster named John Adam
Luckenbach. Rev. John Casper Stoever was the first pastor of the Lutheran
In 1749, York County was formed from Lancaster County. Hellam Township
officially became part of York County.
In Hellam Township the first shoemaker was Samuel Landys, whose shop was
somewhere on Kreutz Creek. The first tailor was Valentine Heyer. The first
blacksmith was Peter Gardner.
By 1750 the road from Anderson’s Ferry was laid out. This later became known
as the Accomac Road.
In 1750, Casper Williart and Peter Gardner were appointed “Overseers of the
Poor” in Hellam Township.
The period from 1749 to 1754 was the time of greatest migration of Germans
from the Palatinate into the province of Pennsylvania. Many of the records
of Warrant, Survey and Patent for land in Hellam Township are dated between
1736 and 1770. The German farmers were drawn from the small acred farms of
Germany, where the land was not owned, to the hundreds of acres available
for ownership in Pennsylvania. Some of the best farmland was to be found in
the valleys of Lancaster and York counties. One valley, the Kreutz Creek
Valley in Hellam Township attracted these German farmers.
Between the years of 1754 and 1763 came the French and Indian War. German
immigration to Pennsylvania halted during this period. With the French and
Indian War came indian attacks on settlers in the regions to the west and
north of York County. The settlers began to withdraw from these areas, back
to the safe places east of the Susquehanna. It is not known whether any of
the farms in Hellam Township were attacked. The Germans of the area were
known to have supported the British during this war.
In 1758, a scots irishman named James Ewing, who lived just outside of
Wrightsville, in Hellam Township was commissioned Lieutenant in Captain
Hunter’s Company and served in Captain Robert McPherson’s company under
General Forbes. Lieutenant Ewing recruited soldiers and was responsible for
providing clothing for the men. After Grants defeat near Fort Dusquesne,
James Ewing was adjutant in the third battallion. Earlier in 1755 Ewing had
served as a private in General Braddock’s ill-fated expedition into western
Pennsylvania. The expedition of which a young George Washington was also a
In 1762, with the end of the French and Indian War, the immigration of the
Germans to Pennsylvania resumed. The settlement of Hellam Township
continued. Deposits of iron ore were first found in the township at about
In 1765, William Bennett built along the Codorus Creek in Hellam Township, a
forge and furnace for the production of iron. At this location, were cast
many cannons and cannon balls used by the Continental Army during the
Revolutionary War. The furnace, known at one time as the Codorus Forge was
in operation until 1850.
In 1769, the inhabitants of Hellam Township and two other townships
requested that a road be established from the mouth of the Codorus Creek at
the Hellam or Codorus Forge, across Windsor and Chanceford Townships to join
with a pike continuing on to Baltimore. The road became known as the old
In 1770, Dr. John Houston began to practice in Hellam Township. He later
served as a surgeon in the Revolutionary War.
In 1775, the American Revolution began. James Ewing became a brigadier
general in a division of the Flying Camp. He participated in battles at New
York, Trenton and Princeton.
In 1777, The Continental Congress crossed the Susquehanna River and passed
through Hellam on its way to the safety of Yorktown to distance itself from
the British army.
In 1778, 4500 British and Hessian prisoners were marched through Hellam and
on to Charlottesville, Virginia where they were imprisoned.
In 1780, there were counted 8 slaves held in Hellam Township.
In 1783 the American Revolutionary War ended. In a period of 6 decades the
distinctive society of the Kreutz Creek Valley had been molded. Occupations,
services and businesses to support the agricultural economy and lifestyle of
the Pennsylvania German farmers began to become more established. Some who
opened their houses to feed and provide sleeping quarters for travelers
became the innkeepers. The inns became the place for the locals to gather,
to exchange information and to vend and imbibe home made spirits in the
company of friends. Generally the location of the inn was at some
intersection of two main transportation routes. One inn, located at
Anderson’s Ferry was at a trail crossing the Susquehanna River. Another
became located where Anderson’s Ferry Road joined the Monocacy Road. The
church became the gathering place for social purposes and eventually several
congregations arose, sharing the one church building in the area. Other
supporting businesses sprung up to keep the people supplied with the
necessities of food, clothing and shelter: A weaver who could create the
wool and flaxen cloth from the farmers raw material; A tanner to produce
leather for harnesses, saddles, footwear and clothing; A saw miller to
fashion the lumber to build the houses, huge bank barns, and out buildings;
A farmer who grew the crops, distilled spirits and raised the animals to be
exchanged to neighbors for their goods and services. A blacksmith who forged
metal to create implements for farming and construction.
According to the list of taxables for the year 1783 in Hellam Township,
there were a total of 122 landowners, many of them owning hundreds of acres
for farming. From those listed, there are found these men and their specific
occupations: George Clopper, Jacob Flory, John Steiner, Christian Reist,
Henry Bainnie and John Fitz were weavers. Jacob Comfort, Christian Kunkel
and George Shallow were innkeepers. George Heibly, Jacob Langenecker, and
Jacob Shultz were blacksmiths. George Mantel was a tanner. Henry Strickler
ran a gristmill and a sawmill. Christian Stoner and John Shultz also had
It should also be noted that there were 18 stills in the township operated
by the following: Widow Beidler, Adam Bahn, Michael Blessing, Jacob
Bruckhardt, Alexander Crow, Baltzer Fitz, Martin Gardner, Henry Kindig,
Baltzer Kunkel, Henry Libhart, Jacob Lanius and Henry Lanius.
There were also 5 slaves in the township owned by the following men: Philip
Gardner, Daniel Neas, Jacob Shultz, and John Wright.
Some of the names on the tax list for 1783 can be traced to the original
buyers and settlers in the township.
These same names can be matched to the map of land ownership created by Dr.
Neal Hively and the location of these settlers can be determined. In
particular one can determine the probable locations of some of these men and
their businesses. Jacob Comfort’s inn was located at Anderson’s Ferry
(Accomac). George Mantel did his tanning near Highmount. Henry Strickler had
his grist and sawmill near today’s Bair’s Mill. Christian Stoner had his two
sawmills on the north side of the Monocacy Road about halfway between Hellam
and Wrightsville. George Shallow kept an inn at the east end of Hellam in
the area where Anderson’s Ferry Road joined the Monocacy Road.
Two well known landowners of Hellam at this time were James Smith and James
Ewing. Smith who owned large tracts of land near the Codorus Furnace was
best known as a lawyer of York and a signer of the Declaration of
Independence. Ewing, was well known as an excellent soldier in the French
and Indian War, a General in the Continental Army during the revolution and
a representative in Pennsylvania’s governing bodies.
The best information about the people of these times is found in the church,
tax and land records of the township. Eventually in 1790 a census taken of
the inhabitants of the United States recorded who was living in Hellam
“Baptismal Records of Rev. John Casper Stoever”
“History of York County, Pennsylvania” by John Gibson
“History of York County, Pennsylvania” by George Prowell
“History of the Kreutz Creek Charge of the Reformed Church” by Rev. Walter
E. Garrett A. B.
“Indians in Pennsylvania” by Paul A. W. Wallace
“The Manor of Springettsbury, York County, Pennsylvania, Its History and
Early Settlers” by Neal Otto Hively.
“The Pennsylvania Germans A Brief Account of their Influence on
Pennsylvania” by Charles H. Glatfelter.
Here are some interesting history facts that I found at various sites
referencing the history of York, PA
City of York – The First Capital of the United States
It was in York that the Congress adopted the Articles of
Confederation, proclaimed the first National Day of Thanksgiving, and
signed the French Treaty of Alliance. All of these events occurred in
the nine months York remained Capital of the United States – until
June 27, 1778. That is where The City of York made history for the
United States, … But since then, York has been part of the growth of
this nation as well as the growth of its inhabitants.
The City of York, Pennsylvania – named for York, England – was part of
the building of our nation, a little-known part of history that many
tend to forget, or just don’t know. As Yorkers know, their City was
the first Capital of the United States, it was the birthplace of the
Articles of Confederation and it was here that the words “The United
States of America” were first spoken.
That big bombshell out of the way, (and yes, we have proof,) we can
begin with York history sometime before 1741, when two surveyors laid
out a town on the banks of the Codorus Creek That town would become
York. Baltzer Spengler and Ulrich Whisler are given credit for forming
the first town west of the Susquehanna River. Both were surveyors with
the William Penn family, the family that gave our state its name.
In September of 1777 the Continental Congress, under threat of the
advancing British, moved the location of the colonies’ central
government from Philadelphia to Lancaster. Since the State of
Pennsylvania’s Government was also located in Lancaster, officials
decided that a move across the Susquehanna would separate the two
sufficiently and the Continental Congress set up shop in the Town of
Firsts of the 1700s. . .
First city: When York city was first laid out in 1741 by Thomas
Cookson, and the first lots were offered for sale, 23 were promptly
purchased in what became the first down west of the Susquehanna River.
First church: “In September of 1733, the Lutherans took steps for the
organization of a congregation, the first one of this denomination
west of the Susquehanna,” wrote historian George Powell in Gibson’s
1886 History of York County. “In 1744 the first log church was built
in York, on the spot where the Christ Church stands.”
First stone homes: The Schultz brothers built the first stone homes in
York County in 1734. John and Christina built a 2 1/2-story home,
believed the first stone home west of the river. It is just east of
York, near Stony Brook. Martin Shultz built his stone dwelling in
“A well authenticated tradtion asserts that on the 30th of September
1777 some of the members of the Continental Congress” stopped at the
John Schultz House for “rest and refreshment.”
“The saddles used by those distinguished patriots greatly excited the
surrounding populace, who were then unaccustomed to such expensive
luxuries,” Prowell wrote.
First roads: In 1739, an old Indian trail from Wrightsville to
Maryland and Virginia was called the Monocacy Road. It was the first
road laid out in the present limits of York County, according to
The Quakers of Warrington and Newberry were responsible for the first
road from the north into York. On Oct. 10, 1745, 18 residents of
Newberry, Manchester, Goldsboro and other northern villages petitioned
for “The Newberry Road” that “For a few years it was called the
Pennsylvania Republican, which ceased to be issued in 1889 just 100
years after is was founded.”
The 1800s. . .
The 1800s saw technology and science involved with many York County
firsts. The first steamboat and first iron locomotive were made in
York. Coal, the light bulb, telegraph, and telephone all made their
way into the lives of our ancestors.
First hall: “About 812 Peter Wilt (owner of The Golden Lamb tavern on
East Market Street) built a hall. It was the first place of public
entertainment so far as records go in the town of York.
“In 1813 the durangs who were famous actors came to York and presented
two plays to large audiences in Wilt’s hall.” John Durang, who grew up
in York during the Revolution, has been called “a pioneer of the
American stage” by author and historian Georg Sheets.
First coal: In 1818, having heard about “stone coal,” Wilt had a half
of ton of it unloaded in front of his tavern.
“Wilt invited his friends and neighbors into his tavern to see how he
would start a fire,” Prowell wrote. Wilt couldn’t get the coal to
burn, and “his guests, having taken a dram of spirits which cost three
cents a glass, pronounced the cannon stove a failure.
That year, George S. Morris was the first coal dealer in York.
First telegraph: The first telegraph line extended from Washington to
Baltimore in 1844, and the first message sent was about President
James Polk’s election.
By 1850 the line reached York, “and in September of that year, the
first message was received in the York office,” Prowell wrote in
another early Dispatch story.
“Ovid Buckley was the first operator. He had his instrument in a book
store opposite the courthouse then owned by himself and Dr. W. S.
First motor: In 1853 Joel M. Ettinger of York made a small electric
motor and exhibited it at the county fair.
First electricity: Until 1881, “electricity was for practical purposed
was utilized in York by the telegraph only,” said The Dispatch.
Betty Peckham wrote for a 1946 Chamber of Commerce book that, “In
1876, Hiram Young, owner of the True Democrat, a local weekly
newspaper, visited the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia and
brought back with him an incandescent lamp, the latest invention of
Hooking it up to a battery, Young put the lightbulb in a window of his
office, “where it was viewed with great interest.”
The early account of electricity in York says six Yorkers organized a
company and procured a charter from West Virginia to incorporate the
York Overland Telephone, Telegraph and Electric Light Co. in the fall
“A dynamo was installed in the building as 26 N. George St.,”
according to Peckham’s account, “driven by a steam engine normally
used to operate a printing press. Two wires were connected to this
equipment and run to a flagpole in Center Square where four carbon arc
lamps were illuminated.”
“People came from miles around to witness the first electric
illumination in the city of York,” wrote Peckham.
First telephone: During the fall of 1881, writes Prowell, “John K.
Gross, the freight agent of the Northern Central Railway, introduced
the telephone into York.” The first line extended from Railroad to
Gross brought the Bell Telephone into York City soon after, the first
line “form the residence of Latimer Small, North George Street, to the
Codorus mills three miles north of York.”
First glitzy packaging: “The current issue of Profitable Advertising,”
said The Gazette of Jan. 22, 1889, reports “A distinct novelty in
flour bags that is now being used by P. A. & S. Small, proprietors of
the Codorus Flour Mill, York, for the purpose of bringing publicity
and popularity to their brand of Pearlicross patent winter wheat
What made the art unique, says the article, is “the fact that they
bear a striking poster design in colors, which is the work of the
greater poster artist, Will Bradley, of the University Press,
“It is the first time the prosaic flour bag has entered the field of art.”
Oxygen discovered: Dr. George Holtzapple was worried a young pneumonia
patient was not getting enough oxygen.
According to York author Betty Peckham, Holtzapple “obtained the
materials for making oxygen, chlorate of potash and black oxide of
manganese,” and some equipment on March 6, 1885.
“The doctor rigged up the apparatus and heated the chemicals over the
spirit lamp. As the oxygen travled up the tube into the bucket of
water and bubbled to the surface, one of the men present fanned it
into the patient’s face.” The boy recovered.
Holtzapple served on the staff of York Hospital for more than 50 years.
First entomologists: More than 100 years ago the professor of
entomology at Harvard University called Hanover’s Melsheimers “the
fathers of entomology in the United States.”
Frederick, and his sons John and Ernst, amassed a collection of
thousands of insects from all over the world.
The elder Melsheimer, born in 1749 in Germany, became pastor of a
Luthern Church in Hanover in 1789 and died in 1814.
In 1806 he published Insects of Pennsylvania, which, says Gibson’s
History, described and classified 1,363 species of beetles, the first
work of the kind published in the United States.
Dr. Ernst Melsheimer inherited the collection, and the interest of his
father and brother. The Entomological Society of Pennsylvania, formed
in 1842, chose his as president in 1853.
The Melsheimer collection, made up of 15,000 specimens from 5,302
species, was sold for $250 “to the distinguished naturalist Prof.
Louis Agassiz,” says Gibson’s History. “They are now highly prized and
are in the museum of Harvard College.”
First locomotive: The first coal burning locomotive was built in York
by Phineas Davis in 1832.
The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad had offered a $4,000 prize to anyone
who could invent a successful coal burning engine. Up to that time
only wood could be used.
Davis built his coal-powered steam engine at his foundry on the
northwest corner of King and Newberry streets. It was finished in
July, 1832, and taken by wagon to Baltimore (no trains connected the
cities until 1838).
Soon after winning the contest, Davis was made manager of the B&O
shops, and set about building more engines.
While testing one of his creations, on Sept. 27, 1835, he died when a
wayward rail caused the train to wreck. He was 40.
The B&O Railroad and the Engineering Society of York placed a
commemorative bronze plaque in Penn Park right across from William
Penn School entrance.
Almost 100 years after he started his invention, a school was built in
his honor in York’s east end.
And then some. . .
First escalator: According to “A Dynamic Community Forges Ahead”
published by the Chamber of Commerce in 1956, it was installed in the
Bon-Ton in 1956. The building now houses the York County Government
First Olympic winner: York Barbell lifter Tony Terlazzo took the Gold
in 1936. [York Barbell off of Rt. 83]
First snacks: Hanover resident John Folmer, according to tax records
from the 1840s, is listed as a pretzel manufacturer. And on Jan. 10,
1945, brothers Ralph and Charles Senft first started selling what many
Yorkers remember as York’s best potato chip. The plant closed on Aug.
History of the Rail Trail [NCR]:
For 134 years, from 1838 to 1972, the Northern Central Railroad
connected Baltimore, MD with York, PA and points north, encouraging
growth of small communities such as New Freedom, Glenrock and Seven
Valleys. It was originally chartered as the Baltimore and
Susquehanna Rail Road, then the Northern Central Rail Road, later as
the Pennsylvania Rail Road and finally as the Penn Central Rail Road.
The historic railroad stations in New Freedom and Hanover Junction
serve today as reminders of several noteworthy Civil War Events,
including a stop over by Abraham Lincoln at Hanover Junction Railroad
Station on his way to delivery his famous Gettysburg Address.
Following the declared bankruptcy of the Penn Central Railroad in 1970
and the major destruction of the rail line in 1972 by Hurricane Agnes,
the County of York purchased the rail corridor in 1990 through a
special agreement the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation and
formed the York County Rail Trail Authority. This board of nine
volunteers, supported by extraordinary volunteer offer throughout the
County of York, have converted this rail corridor into a unique
History of the Jackson House [Railroad, PA – York County]:
The Jackson House Hotel was built in 1859 along the Northern Central
Railroad tracks. During that era, Railroad was quite a thriving,
Trains laden with raw goods stopped to replenish local factories.
Finished products were then put on board for their final destination.
Railroad was in its heyday with a large variety of industries. It had
grist mills, a tannery, a distillery and a level factory to name just
President Lincoln, applauded by many, passed thru Railroad on his way
to Gettysburg to make his famous speech, “The Gettysburg Address.”
Lincoln‘s funeral train also passed through Railroad, through this
time many sad onlookers said silent goodbyes.
YORK COUNTY HERITAGE
250 Years of History
York County has played a proud role in the long exciting drama that
is the history of the United States of America. York County can
justifiably be called the first proving ground for a westward flow of
settlers that did not stop until checked by the waters of the Pacific.
It was in the forefront of organized resistance during the American
Revolution and a source of strength to the Union armies during the
most critical period of the Civil War. In more modern times, its
citizenry has made notable contributions to the victory effort in two
world wars and numerous armed conflicts. Over the past 250 years it
has utilized its resources to create a community nationally admired
for its agricultural richness, industrial vigor and cultural
The history of the County begins with the benign agreements
established by William Penn with the Indians who made their homes
along its streams and rivers. In 1681, Penn had accepted a grant of
land in the new frontier of 16,000 pounds, a debt owed to his father;
for Penn, it was primarily an opportunity to establish new homes for
his persecuted fellow Quaker Brethren. [*intersting note: First
marriage in York Co Pa. was at John Day’s house 29 5mo 1740. Myers
Immigration of Irish Quakers into Penna. 1612-1750. See Marriage
certificate copied at Friends Historical Library, Swarthmore College.
John Day and Anna Hussey were staunch Quakers. He was an Elder and
were one of the earliest settlers in the 1730s of Chester Co, PA. The
first court of York County was held at York on Oct. 31, 1749 and John
Day was the first judge. The courthouse was built in 1756. Two of Anna
Hussey’s brothers include John Hussey III and Nathan. Former President
Richard M. Nixon is descended from two of John Hussey III’s children.]
As early as 1682, Penn and his heirs negotiated with the Indians to
formally purchase the lands. As settlements along the coast grew in
size and number, the need for westward expansion became apparent, and
in 1722 the Indians were requested and gave permission for the survey
of land beyond the Susquehanna River. A tract measuring 6 miles wide
and 15 miles long and including the site now occupied by the City of
York was surveyed and named Springettsbury Manor, for Springett Penn,
the grandson of the Founder. The Onandagoe, Seneca, Oneida and
Tuscarora nations signed a treaty of peace and deeded to the Penns,
“all the river Susquehanna and all land lying on the west side of said
river to the setting of the sun…”
Meanwhile, in 1729, John and James Hendricks had made the first
authorized settlement in what is now York County, on Kruetz Creek.
Germans, originally lured from the Rhenish Palatinate by William
Penn’s agents,soon followed Englishmen into the new frontier.
Pamphlets and even playing cards extolled the opportunities to be
found in Pennsylvania. The first Irish and Scotch took over the land
in the southeast, then known as “York Barrens.” To the north,
families, mostly Quakers moving on from Chester County settled
Newberry Township and its surroundings called the “Redlands”.
The town of York was laid in 1741, when Thomas Cookson surveyed 437
1/2 acres on the banks of the Codorus Creek. On November 23, 1741,
applicants agreed to pay seven shillings a year for the use of lots
measuring 230 feet long and 65 feet wide, and to erect on it,”a
substantial dwelling of 16 feet square at least…within the space of
On August 17, 1749 the provincial Assembly separated York County from
Lancaster County and officially partitioned the new county.
The French and Indian Wars which were fought so bitterly in western
Pennsylvania in the 1750’s spread within a day’s march of York County,
and refugees from Cumberland County fled to its settlements. In 1755,
Benjamin Franklin spent time in York hiring 150 wagons, 259 pack
horses and buying flour for General Braddock’s army. In 1758 four
companies of militia from the County took part in the capture of Fort
Duquesne (later renamed Pittsburgh).
Hanover, second largest town in the County, was a thickly grown grove
of hickory trees until 1763, when Richard M’Alister laid out a town in
a “no-man’s land”, claimed by Maryland as well as Pennsylvania, and
accepting the jurisdiction of neither. The border between the two
provinces had been hotly contested and “Maryland Intruders” roamed as
far as the Susquehanna. The rivalry became so bitter that the British
government arranged a survey to settle it. The line laid down by
engineers Mason and Dixon on 1763-67,eventually marked the Civil War
division between the Union and the Confederacy.
As early as July 4, 1774, York Countians selected a committee to
protest against British taxation and other oppressive measures. When
Boston was blockaded as a result of its famous tea party, York County
provided financial help and military support. A local company of
militia riflemen were among the first from west of the Hudson River to
march to Massachusetts. In 1775 there were 3,349 “associaters” or
volunteer militiamen within the County, and by 1778, a total of
4,621York Countians answered the call to arms. By contrast the total
population at the time was just shy of 25,000. In 1779 Colonel Thomas
Hartley observed that,” the York districts has armed first in
Pennsylvania and has furnished more men for the war and lost a greater
number of men in it than any other district on the continent of the
same number individuals.”
THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION
Innumerable organized protests against parliamentary restrictions and
sporadic fighting throughout the colonies swelled into organized
revolution. In July , 1776, the Declaration of Independence was read
to cheering Yorkers who gathered before the two-story red brick
courthouse on Centre Square. Fourteen months later the Continental
Congress, having put the Susquehanna between themselves and the
British who occupied Philadelphia, assembled in the same courthouse
in order to administer a nation not quite fully born.
The presence of the Congress in York, from September 30,1777 to June
27, 1778, brought the first printing press to the County. The press
was necessary in order that military and legislative news could be
sent throughout the colonies. It was also used to print about
$10,000,000 worth of currency while in York; money that was so
inflated as to be almost worthless. Undoubtedly the most important
business conducted here was the drafting of the Articles of
Confederation, which in 1781 would be ratified by the required
two-thirds of the colonies , establishing the “United States of
America”. Victory and independence would finally come for the new
nation in 1783.
Many unforgettable figures in our national history hurried resolutely
through York County in those days. Thomas Paine worked as secretary to
the committee of foreign affairs, and in his spare time wrote some of
the tracts which made up his literary work “The Crisis.” The Marquis
de Lafayette, with a toast to General Washington, disrupted the Conway
Cabal, a plot to elevate General Horatio Gates to supreme commander of
the Colonial army. General Anthony Wayne, Baron von Steuben, Count
Pulaski were here on military errands. Less distinguished visitors
were the English prisoners-of-war quartered at Camp Security. Many
later remained upon release and settled in York County.
In 1800, immediately after the separation of Adams County from York
County, the County boasted a population of 25,643. During the first
half of the nineteenth century York remained primarily an agricultural
community, but residents continued to contribute to the growing
industrialization of the County. Conestoga wagons in York and
Lancaster gradually disappeared as railroads, canals and waterways
increased the mobility of men and goods. The Codorus was navigable
from York to its mouth on the Susquehanna River. In 1825, on the
Susquehanna, John Edgar tested the first iron steamboat. Phineas
Davis, a well-known clock maker, perfected his revolutionary
coal-burning locomotive in York County.
As the questions of slavery became a moral and political issue in this
young nation, York County helped maintain a more unusual form of
transportation. The phrase “underground railway” supposedly originated
in the southern Pennsylvania area as runaway slaves were assisted in
their flight to more tolerant states.
THE CIVIL WAR
After the guns off Fort Sumter thundered the call to war in 1861, York
County sent the first fully-equipped volunteers to march from
Pennsylvania. Antietam, Fredericksburg, Chancellorville, Richmond and
Appamatox were some of the battlegrounds on which York Countians died
and distinguished themselves. Within the County, Camp Scott was
established as a training post for as many as 5,500 men. In July 1862,
a hospital able to care for wounded was established and operated until
the end of the war, reportedly treating 14,000 soldiers..
Late in June 1863, Confederate troops made their most extensive thrust
into northern territory when they spread across York County as far as
the Susquehanna River. Union forces fled into Lancaster County but
further Confederate advances were checked when the bridge at
Wrightsville was burned. Within the City of York, a committee raised
more than $28,000 and gathered supplies of food and clothing to
appease Confederate commander, General Jubal A. Early. His theat to
burn the railroad car shops was forestalled when he received urgent
orders to withdraw to join other Confederate armies massing at
Gettysburg in Adams County to the west.
The first Civil War battle on Pennsylvania soil was fought at Hanover
on June 30th, 1863. Because of this engagement, General J.E.B Stuart
and his much-heralded cavalry forces were unable to join General
Robert E. Lee’s armies at Gettysburg until after the decisive battles
had been fought. This delay in Hanover played an important part in the
Union victory at Gettysburg, which is considered to be the turning
point in the War Between the States.
A somber close to this period was the passing of Abraham Lincoln‘s
funeral train through York County. A large part of the local
population was at the railroad station to pay tribute to the martyred
president on April 21, 1865, as his funeral train passed through
TWENTIETH CENTURY SERVICE RECORD
Until World War I the County concentrated on an increasing
industrialization and productive agriculture. During the “Great War of
1914-1918″, more than 6,000 York Countians were members of the
nation’s armed services. A total of 197 York Countians lost their
lives as battle casualties or as victims of influenza and other
diseases that swept across the land, both here and abroad.
With the advent of World War II, local industries were instrumental in
formulating a program for combining community resources to increase
productivity. The 14-point York plan soon proved its efficacy and was
widely copied throughout the nation. The objectives of the York Plan
were to: educate workers and assure them of the best available housing
and health facilities; integrate work that could be done by
subcontractors and primary contractors within the local area; and
utilize all available machines and workers to meet the demand for war
material. Before the war ended with the Japanese surrender on August
4, 1945, ten percent of York County’s population of more than 178,000
served in the armed forces. Of these 371 were killed, 822 were
wounded, 152 were reported missing and 192 were taken prisoner. Two
outstanding heroes of World War II were York Countians. General Jacob
Loucks Devers, commander of Army Ground Forces in the European
Theater, and Lieutenant Alexander B. Goode, one of four chaplains who
bravely went to their deaths aboard the troop transport S.S.
Dorchester. Lieutenant Goode and his colleagues were recognized for
giving up their life belts so others might live.
The 1950’s brought another crisis to York County as once again county
troops served bravely during the Korean conflict. Of the 263,721
Pennsylvanian Korean Veterans, 6,910 are from York County and of that
number 63 were killed, either from wounds or from disease.
Since World War II, the nation and York County has experienced periods
of prosperity and times of turmiol. York Countians have answered the
call for several armed conflicts including the Korean War, Vietnam and
most recently the “100 hour war” in the Persian Gulf. During these
hostilities , 164 men and women gave their lives to preserve the
freedoms our forefathers envisioned that winter in York so long ago in
1777 and 1778…